Russian Revolution essay questions These Russian Revolution essay questions have been written and compiled by Alpha History authors, for use by teachers and students.
The proclamation law of freed the peasants from dependence on the landowners and granted them all the land, previously worked by the peasants for their own use.
Agriculture remained in the hands of peasants, who together constituted about four-fifths of the rural population, and former landowners. By the end of 19th century, Russia was the largest producer and exporter of cereals in the world. Owing to the development of agriculture, Russia gradually assumed a more important position in the world trade.
Industrial growth was significant, although unsteady, and in absolute terms it was not extensive. By Russia had about 32, kilometers of railroads and 1.
Between andannual coal production had grown about 1, percent to over 6. The state budget had more than doubled, however, and debt expenditures had quadrupled, constituting 28 percent of official expenditures in Reforms and their limits[ edit ] Tsar Alexander IIwho succeeded Nicholas I inwas a man of a liberal disposition, who saw no alternative but to implement change in the aftermath of the Crimean War.
Alexander initiated substantial reforms in education, the government, the judiciary, and the military. In he proclaimed the emancipation of about 20 million privately held serfs. Local commissions effected emancipation by giving land and freedom to the serfs.
The government had envisioned that the 50, former landlords who possessed estates of more than 1. Reforms of local government closely followed emancipation.
In most local government in the European part of Russia was organized into provincial and district elected self-government zemstvoswhich were made up of representatives of all classes and were responsible for local schools, public health, roads, prisons, food supply, and other concerns.
In elected city councils, or dumawere formed. Dominated by property owners and constrained by provincial governors and the police, the zemstva and duma raised taxes and levied labor to support their activities. In Alexander II implemented the great judicial reform.
In major towns, it established courts with juries. In general, the judicial system functioned effectively, but the government lacked the finances and cultural influence to extend the court system to the villages, where traditional peasant justice continued to operate with minimal interference from provincial officials.
The Russian judicial system was modelled after contemporary French and German law. Each case had to be decided on its merits and not on precedents. This approach remained in place ever since. Other major reforms took place in the educational and cultural spheres. Censorship, which had stifled opinion under Nicholas, was greatly relaxed, and public opinion found a voice.
Universities had gained autonomy. The Government encouraged education: The central government attempted to act through the zemstva to establish uniform curricula for elementary schools.
In the financial sphere, Russia established the State Bank inwhich put the national currency on a firmer footing. The Ministry of Finance supported railroad development, which facilitated vital export activity, but it was cautious and moderate in its foreign ventures. The ministry also founded the Peasant Land Bank in to enable enterprising farmers to acquire more land.
The Franco-Prussian War demonstrated the necessity of building a modern army. The old system of long term service 25 years for a limited number of recruits was abandoned, as being too heavy a burden for the people and as providing practically no reserves.
The new conscription system, which provided for a short term of active service followed by several years in the reserve, was introduced by Dmitry Milyutin in It was drawn on democratic lines, calling to the colours all young men of 21 without distinction of class.Essay on The Impact that Lenin had on Russia and the Russian People Words | 9 Pages.
The Impact that Lenin had on Russia and the Russian People Russia was an enormous empire and had over 55,, Russians in it. The leader of Russia from to was Tsar Nicholas II (emperor) who was ruler of Russia. A collection of Russian Revolution essay questions, for teachers and students.
Discuss the ideas, composition and methods of revolutionary movements in late 19th century Russia. To what extent were these movements able to reform or moderate tsarism? both on public perceptions of tsarism and on the revolutionary movement in Russia.
4. The reason there was a revolution in Russia in was the level of social unhappiness and resentment that came from years of autocratic rule, and terrible living conditions for a large sector of the population, combined with the skills of the intelligentsia to draw upon resentment and expose the reactionary nature of autocracy, which gave.
Essay The Russian Revolution And The Soviet Revolution The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a pair of revolutions in Russia in , which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the eventual rise of the Soviet Union. Examples of radical revolutionary movements include the Bolsheviks in Russia, the Chinese Communist Party and other communist movements in Southeast Asia and in Cuba (which attempted to introduce broad changes to the economic system), the movements of the Iranian Revolution against the shah, and some [which?] Central American guerrilla movements.
Jews in Russia proper and the Ukraine were subject to bad (and worsening) discrimination, especially since they were associated with either Poles or with revolutionary movements. Most of the latter were also highly nationalistic and oblivious to the minority problem.