Rodrigo Pereira Duquia, R. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The present paper aims to provide basic guidelines to present epidemiological data using tables and graphs in Dermatology.
Info Presenting numerical data There are many ways in which you can present numerical data. In this guide there is an explanation of the various ways in which we do this.
For a printer-friendly PDF version of this guide, click here This guide offers practical advice on how to incorporate numerical information into essays, reports, dissertations, posters and presentations.
The guide outlines the role of text, tables, graphs and charts as formats for presenting numerical data. It focuses on issues that should be addressed when presenting numerical data for different audiences and highlights ways that will maximise the impact of such data and ensure that they are easy to read and interpret.
Bar chartsHistogramsPie charts. Introduction It is likely that there will be occasions when you have numerical information that you want to include in your work, for example figures and other statistics from secondary sources such as books, journal articles or newspaper reports ; the results of experiments; or data that you have collected and analysed as part of a project or dissertation.
Such information can be used to illustrate an argument or convey complex or detailed information in a concise manner. There are three main methods of presenting such information: Determining which of these methods is the most appropriate depends upon the amount of data you are dealing with and their complexity.
The choice about whether to use text, tables or graphs requires careful consideration if you are to ensure that your reader or audience understands your argument and is not left struggling to interpret data that are poorly presented or in an inappropriate format.
It is crucial to remember that when using a table or graph the associated text should describe what the data reveal about the topic; you should not need to describe the information again in words.
Including numbers in the main body of text Numbers are most effective in the main body of the text of an essay, report or dissertation when there are only two values to compare. If you are discussing three or more numbers, including them within the main body of text does not facilitate comprehension or comparison and it is often more useful to use a table incorporated within the text.
Is more clearly expressed as: Male students said they ate breakfast: In general, numbers are usually given as digits rather than spelt out in the text, e. However, in some academic journals the convention is to spell out whole numbers between one and ten and use values for all other numbers - so you may wish to find out what the usual practice is within your own discipline.
Presenting numbers in tables Tables are used to present numerical data in a wide variety of publications from newspapers, journals and textbooks to the sides of grocery packets.
They are the format in which most numerical data are initially stored and analysed and are likely to be the means you use to organise data collected during experiments and dissertation research.
However, when writing up your work you will have to make a decision about whether a table is the best way of presenting the data, or if it would be easier to understand if you were to use a graph or chart.
This section of the guide identifies the appropriate uses of tables, and discusses some design issues for constructing clear tables which are easy to interpret. The points covered in this guide apply equally to primary data that you have collected yourself, and to data that you have found in secondary sources and which you wish to include in your work.
The latter may already be presented as a table in the original work but you do not have to reproduce it exactly. It may be that you only require an extract from the table to support your argument, or that the design of the table could be improved, or that you wish to merge information from two different publications.
There is no problem in doing any of these as long as you ensure that you reference the original source of the data in your table. When to use tables Tables are an effective way of presenting data: For example, a table would be an appropriate way of showing how the category unemployment rate varies between different countries in the EU different points in space ; when the dataset contains relatively few numbers.
This is because it is very hard for a reader to assimilate and interpret many numbers in a table. In particular, avoid the use of complex tables in talks and presentations when the audience will have a relatively short time to take in the information and little or no opportunity to review it at a later stage; when the precise value is crucial to your argument and a graph would not convey the same level of precision.APA STYLE (6th edition) 2 APA Style These guidelines for presenting a report in APA style are adapted from the 6th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association published in .
Keep tables and spreadsheets compact and tidy.
If your data starts to spread or becomes unwieldy, you’ve got too much detail, or you need to make more than one table. The other possibility is that the data isn’t suitable to present as a table, and you may need to think of another way of presenting your data.
Figures, Tables and References. Within the dissertation marking scheme, marks are awarded for both the correct use of figures/tables and presentation of references. This is not difficult, and if you follow the advice given here you should pick up most (if not all) of the available marks.
when presenting line graphs. But you should not. Tables are especially helpful when presenting a great deal of numerical data at once. A well-organized table can effectively deliver vast amounts of information in an easy-to-read manner.
Per APA guidelines, all tables included in your dissertation should be necessary—if you can deliver the information clearly in the body of your text, avoid. You will need to differentiate between is presenting raw data and using data as evidence or examples to support the findings you have identified.
Here are some points to consider: Your findings should provide sufficient evidence from your data to support the conclusions you have made.
A dissertation statement should express exactly what your dissertation will be about. Writing your title and keeping this in mind will help you to devise a topic for a dissertation which is mangeable within the time you have for research and writing up your dissertation.