About thousand professionals work in this sector either in PR agencies or form a part of the internal communications team. The demand for PR professionals is increasing with every passing day as many foreign companies are looking at India as an important profit center and even domestic companies are now waking up to the importance of reputation and positive brand communications. On the other hand, while there is demand for PR services in India, the reputation of the reputation management profession is heavily tarnished.
K Patra and G. Growth Booster of Onion S. K Rai and R. A long-term effect on the environment and human health issues Balwinder Singh and Kalyani Supriya Chandel 21 Pulse revolution: Shehrawat and Sonia 27 Seed priming: Biradar and Prasad Mithare 29 Plastics: D Veterinary Science Dr.
The views are expressed by authors editorial board does not take any responsibility of the content of the articles Editor In Chief Editor Members Subject Editors slide 3: Cattle and sheep are highly susceptible to anthrax followed by horse mules and pigs. Man acquires the disease accidentally through contact with infected animals or their products often by the cutaneous route and rarely by the respiratory or gastrointestinal routes Freidlander Anthrax is a concern of public health in India where 70 per cent of population depend upon agriculture as source of income.
The resistant spores of anthrax have earned the status of potential bio- terror weapon. The possibility to create aerosol from spores makes B.
According to CDC norms B. Anthrax mainly occurs in herbivores like cattle sheep and camels horses etc. Among birds only ostriches are known to be susceptible to anthrax Huchzermeyer Affected animals will have bleeding from natural orifices resulting in contaminated of pasture soil or water sources by organism which can persist in the environment after gets sporulated.
The disease is endemic in south Asia and Bangladesh Thapa et al. Outbreaks of anthrax generally occur after the climatic change where alkaline soil pH and dry periods provides the microenvironment for the survival of spores and increased exposure to susceptible hosts.
The high sheep population and unrestricted migratory patterns leads to outbreak of disease in Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.
Environmental and human factors like free range system of rearing relatively poor awareness of the disease the presence of leather tanneries and the soil leads to anthrax outbreaks in Vellore and Tiruvannamalai districts of Tamilnadu Gunaseelan et al.
Three major forms of anthrax occur in humans: Human to human transmission of anthrax is unlikely to occur and there is no evidence of spread to health workers caring for patients with the disease.
A Anthrax - Public health significance slide 4: The ability of B. The three components of anthrax toxin act in binary combinations to produce two distinct reactions. An individual protein is non-toxic to animals. The anthrax toxin hinders the immune response by the host against the infection.
The endospores of B. Inside the macrophages the spores germinate and become vegetative bacteria Guidi-Rontani et al. Both virulence factors are expressed by the organism in this process and the resulting toxaemia has systematic effect that lead to the death of the host.
The clinical symptoms like severe mucosal congestion leading to haemorrhages from mouth anus and nasal cavity which considered as pathognomonic signs of anthrax.
In addition to that there will be elevated body temperature In herbivores the disease is hyper acute resulting in sudden death within hrs due to septicaemia and toxaemia. The gastro-intestinal form is more common.
Cutaneous anthrax occurs through bite of mechanical vectors or wound contamination. The clinical form in which spores enters the skin through abrasions or cuts and gets deposited in different areas like arms hands face and neck.
The infection arises within days to maximum of 12 days and initially develops as painless small papule which then gets transforms into vesicle filled with dark bluish black fluid that contains numerous large gram-positive bacilli and its get ruptures which reveals a black eschar commonly referred as a malignant pustule.
After one or two weeks the eschar dries and falls off. Regional lymphadenopathy may also be seen. Some patients will experience headache malaise and low-grade fever usually asymptomatic.
The clinical form in which spores-bearing particles are inhaled and its gets deposited into alveolar spaces Goossens et al. The disease follows rapidly after the germination of spores.
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