Part of this technological advancement is the emergence of the Information Technology. Information Technology IT management along with the internet context is often regarded as the unquestioned cornerstone towards competitiveness in the 21st century. These technological advancements have brought people especially those in the business world to utilize a strategy that would be helpful in enhancing the business value of any organisation Furthermore, this development has made changes and development of the plans and strategies of the management of any organisation especially those in the marketing environment.
Introduction Perhaps the earliest use of technology in qualitative research was when researchers first used tape recorders in their field studies to record interview sessions.
In one sense this was clearly an easier way for researchers to keep a record of events and conversations, but it had two unforeseen consequences. First, it began to shift the effort of work in making a record of sessions from the researcher who traditionally took handwritten notes to others, such as secretaries and audio typists.
This separation had an impact not only on how close to or distant from the data the researcher could remain, but also on the relationship between the data and the emerging analytic ideas of the researcher.
Having a recording and a transcript meant that new ways of thinking about how the analysis developed out of the data and how the analysis was supported by the data became possible. Second, it allowed different kinds of analysis that could only be undertaken if accurate records of the speech were kept.
This made possible a focus on the small scale and minute content and characteristics of speech. It also opened up the possibilities of much larger scale studies and the use of multiple researchers and analysts.
In the 21st century, the use of new technology still raises issues like what should be analysed, how it should be analysed and in what ways the knowledge and understanding gained are different and more or less well founded than those gained in more traditional ways.
The papers in this issue address both these impacts of the technology: Most researchers recognise that in most cases, the use of new technology usually affects both. Data Gathering Audio recording is an analogue technology, as are film and traditional video. There is a long history of their use in many areas of social and psychological research and especially in anthropology.
Recent changes in this technology have taken several forms. First it has become cheaper and more widespread. This means that the technology is more available to researchers, but also that the people being researched are more used to being recorded by the technology and even familiar with using it themselves.
For example, in the case of video, people are now used to being recorded whether as part of a "holiday video" or as part of the now widespread CCTV Closed Circuit Television security systems.
They are often familiar with making their own video recordings and with "reading" the wide variety of video material they are presented with. Both the cheapness and ubiquity of the technology mean that there are new opportunities for researchers not only to record settings but also to use the technology to create new data.
Naturally, the use of such technology raises issues of interpretation, impact and validity that researchers need to deal with. However, she found that they very quickly ignored the pictures and started more general discussions about their work practices. Consequently, she used printed versions of the photos as the basis of a group discussion amongst the researchers.
Interaction patterns in task-oriented small groups discuss the use of the video analysis software, THEME, to identify communicative patterns in two distinct examples of task-oriented small group interaction. They focused on power-related and support-related behaviour as well as verbal and nonverbal patterns in the behaviour.
With the software they found two interaction patterns that it would have been hard to detect without the use of the software: Not only has this made the technology cheaper and more widely used, but also it has made possible new ways of manipulating and analysing the data collected.
This can be seen particularly in digital video where there is now some excellent software that can be used to display, examine and edit digital video recording in ways that are much easier and cheaper than non-digital video.
The software makes it possible to rearrange, present, and navigate through video in ways that were not possible before.
Whereas previously research involved the arduous creation of written sequence narratives, now using the software, the researcher could select video clips of only those behaviours of interest and quickly inspect the relevant behaviours and come to analytical conclusions.
The former include discussion lists, text forums, personal Web pages and videoconferences. The latter include usage logs, text content logs as well as digitised recordings.
As they point out, one key advantage here is that there is no need for transcription.
Moreover, the e-interview might enable research about new social groupings, given that constraints of time, travel and financial resources do not apply. However, problems of how to establish and preserve rapport are created and the authors explore the issues that arise from the physical remoteness between interviewer and interviewee and the absence of cues and tacit signs provided by body language.
As they point out, researchers need to be aware of the speed at which they should reply and at which they can expect replies from respondents.In the book’s introduction, Schlapobersky provides a brief historical overview, locating the origins of group analysis in the “exchange of clinical perspective and theory that flourished in Frankfurt until ” (p.
12). James Manyika, McKinsey's lead author of the report, believes "This is going to take decades," because transforming the workplace not only involves technological change, but societal change as well. Nevertheless, the report concludes that eventually current technology has the potential to eliminate over 1 billion jobs while eliminating $ .
TOP 10 CAUSES OF GLOBAL SOCIAL CHANGE. The causes of social change below affect or characterize every aspect of society across the world. On a macro scale, they shape all of our major social institutions (economics, politics, religion, family, education, science/technology, military, legal system, and so on.
public administration have been changed, adapted, augmented or even replaced, although many basic principles remain valid. Rethinking Public Administration takes a new look at public administration, identifies major influencing forces, and highlights public administration approaches and techniques which need updating and revision.
Science is deeply interwoven with society and changes along with society. The Internet and other technological advances have changed how scientific information is distributed and the process of scrutiny within science.
Changes in process and place Although these domains are discussed separately, they overlap. We briefly discuss the overlaps, where they exist, and point to the benefits and concerns the new work patterns present for workers and managers.